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 História da tracção ás quatro rodas

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Number of posts : 422
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Registration date : 2006-11-09

PostSubject: História da tracção ás quatro rodas   Wed Mar 07, 2007 8:40 pm

História da 4WD

Um dos sistemas mais antigos de tracção ás quatro rodas de que há memória foi criado por Ferdinand Porsche.

Em 1900, Porsche, desenvolveu para o fabricante austriaco Jacob Lohner, um sistema de tracção ás quatro rodas que usava um motor electrico em cada roda.

O primeiro sistema de tracção ás quatro rodas completamente mecânico, com caixa de transferência, foi desenvolvido em 1902 pela empresa alemâ Jacobus Spyker.

Em 1903 a Mercedes Benz já produzia diversos veículos de tracção ás quatro rodas.

O primeiro veículo de tracção ás quatro rodas fabricado nos EUA surgiu em 1911 através da empresa, criada por Zachow e Besserdich, denominada FWD

Datas históricas:

1898: Latil (France) making front wheel drive units and then 4x4. http://www.4wdonline.com/Latil/Latil.html

1898: Tatra starts manufacturing. http://www.4wdonline.com/Mil/Tatra/Tatra.html
1900: Ferdinand Porsche's La Toujours Contente is battery-powered with 4 electric motors, one per wheel. He later patents the Mixte transmission: a petrol engine drives a dynamo and electric motors drive the wheels (too expensive for the day).
1902: Spyker (Dutch) full-time four wheel drive car built. Exhibited at the Paris Motor Show in December 1903 [Sco61]. http://www.4wdonline.com/ClassicCars/Spyker.html

1907: Felix and Norman Caldwell of South Australia apply for a patent for four wheel drive plus four wheel steering; they go on to build Caldwell Vale 4x4 trucks with Henry Vale. http://www.4wdonline.com/ClassicTrucks/CaldwellVale.html
1911: FWD sells its first 4x4 [Bal87]. http://www.4wdonline.com/FWD/FWD.html

1913: Jeffrey Quad 4X4 truck goes into production. http://www.4wdonline.com/ClassicTrucks/Jeffrey.html

1915: Big Lizzie road train (Au). http://www.4wdonline.com/ClassicTrucks/BigLizzie.html

1917: First Oshkosh four wheel drive truck [Bal88].
1922, December 17: Citroen half-tracks leave from Touggourt in Algeria to cross the Sahara Desert. http://www.4wdonline.com/Citroen/Citroen.html
1924, December 28: Citroen half-tracks leave to traverse Africa.
1929: AEC start to build AWD trucks in conjunction with FWD (UK). http://www.4wdonline.com/ClassicTrucks/AEC.html

1931-1932: Citroen-Haardt expedition, using Citroen half-tracks, follows part of Marco-Polo's route from Beirut to Beijing.
1932: Miller 4x4 racing cars at Indianapolis. http://www.4wdonline.com/ClassicCars/Miller.html

1934: AEC road train (one of three built) brought to Australia. It consisted of an 8x8 prime-mover and two 8-wheel self-tracking trailers. http://www.4wdonline.com/ClassicTrucks/AECroadTrain.html
1934: Dodge start building 4WD trucks (- George Miles). http://www.4wdonline.com/Dodge/Dodge.html
1934: Prototype PX-33 four wheel drive car built for the Japanese government; the car did not go into production (Mitsubishi). Thanks to Balazs Toth.
1938: GAZ 61 - Russian 4x4. http://www.4wdonline.com/Mil/GAZ/GAZ.html
1940: Jeep specification issued.
1940-1941: Bantam build 2700 light 4x4s, early "Jeeps".
1941-1945: Ford and Willys-Overland build 700,000 General Purpose vehicles for WWII (GP becomes Jeep). http://www.4wdonline.com/Jeep/MB/MB.html

1946, October 10: Unimog introduced (- H. J. Feil). http://www.4wdonline.com/Unimog/Unimog.html
1948: Series-1 Land-Rover released. http://www.4wdonline.com/LandRover/Series/S1.html
1948: Ford release first of the F-Series vehicles.
1950: Ford GPA, or amphibious Jeep `Half Safe' crosses the Atlantic ocean (I am not making this up).http://www.4wdonline.com/Mil/HalfSafe.html
1951: First Toyota Landcruiser built, as the `BJ Jeep', the LandCruiser name came in 1954. http://www.4wdonline.com/Toyota/20.html
1951 - NAPCO (Northwestern Auto Parts Company) starts to produce 4x4 conversion units. The earliest documentable truck to be converted by NAPCO was a 1951 Chevy 3/4 ton owned by Butch Gehrig of Odell, Oregon.
1954-1956: Amphibious Jeep `La Tortuga' "drives" from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego.
1955-1956: London to Singapore overland (except for Channel!) 2 x Land-Rovers.
1958: First Toyota LandCruisers imported into Australia.
1959: Haflinger by Steyr-Daimler-Puch. http://www.4wdonline.com/Steyr/Haflinger.html
1960: A Jeep and a Land-Rover traverse the Darien Gap. http://www.4wdonline.com/Places/CentralAmerica/Darien.html
1961: Stirling Moss driving a Ferguson Project 99 (P99) with the Ferguson 4WD system wins the Oulton Park Gold-Cup race. http://www.4wdonline.com/ClassicCars/Racing.html
1964, 17 July: Bluebird (4WD) raises the land speed record to 403 mph. http://www.4wdonline.com/Museums/NMMUK/NMMUK.html
1966: Jensen FF all wheel drive road car is put into production (until 1971), using a Ferguson Formula 4WD system with centre diff' and viscous coupling ?? --> (the FF also had ABS brakes) - John Wild. http://www.4wdonline.com/Jensen/Jensen.html
1970: Range Rover released - luxury full-time 4WD. http://www.4wdonline.com/LandRover/RR1.html
1971: Ford Falcon XY ute 4WD (Australia) http://www.4wdonline.com/Ford/Falcon.html
1971: Four wheel drive on the Moon http://www.4wdonline.com/Misc/LRV.html

1971-1972: British Trans-Americas Range Rover expedition. http://www.4wdonline.com/LandRover/RR1/Darien.html
1974: Subaru Leone L-series - four wheel drive passenger car. http://www.4wdonline.com/Subaru/Subaru.html
1979: AMC produce the Eagle 4x4 car http://www.4wdonline.com/AMC/Eagle.html
1981: Humvee or Hummer (HMMWV - High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle) specification issued. http://www.4wdonline.com/Mil/HMMWV/HMMWV.html
1981: Audi revolutionize rallying with the Quattro 4WD rally car. http://www.4wdonline.com/Audi/Audi.html
1981: Porsche must have been watching Audi as they showed a Porsche 911 AWD concept car at the Frankfurt Motor Show [Porsche]. http://www.4wdonline.com/Porsche/History.html
1983: Land Rover 110, coil-sprung, full-time 4WD. http://www.4wdonline.com/LandRover/Defender/110.html
1984: A Porsche 911 AWD wins the Paris Dakar rally. http://www.4wdonline.com/Porsche/History.html

1986: Porsche 959 AWDs finish 1, 2 and 6 in the Paris Dakar rally.
1994: Range Rover completely revised. http://www.4wdonline.com/LandRover/RR2.html
1996: Jeep Wrangler gets coil springs! http://www.4wdonline.com/Jeep/Wrangler.html

2002 and onwards???
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